Traditional instruments of Serbia
The tamburitza [tamburitsa] /tamburica; diminutive of tambura/ is the most popular instrument in the folk music of Serbia /especially Vojvodina/ and Croatia /especially Slavonia/. It is a plucked string instrument related to the mandolin of Italy, the bandura of the Ukraine and the balalaika of Russia. The word tambura probably comes from the Persian word “Denbar” or maybe from the Arabic “Tambur”. It is first documented in the 14th century, and is said to have first entered Bosnia before being introduced to Bačka and Slavonia
Janika Balaž /Janika Balázs/ was born on December 23rd, 1925 in Lukino Selo near Zrenjanin, died November 12, 1988 in Novi Sad/ was a famous tamburitza musician and band leader from Vojvodina. He was born 1925. in a Hungarian-speaking Roma family with strong musical tradition, which gave him genetic prerequisites to become a musician. Janika Balaž grew up in Bečej, where he started playing violin in a local kafana with 10 years of age. When he realized that he couldn’t become the best violinist, he switched to /”prim” or “bisernica”/ tamburitza which he played ever since. Later, Janika Balaž played with “Braća kozaci” band in the area of Subotica and Horgoš. From 1948 to 1951, Janika Balaž worked in Radio Titograd in Montenegro, where he perfected his tamburitza play.
From its foundation in 1951 to the end of his working career Janika Balaž worked in Radio Novi Sad and was a member of its Grand Tamburitza Orchestra. Janika Balaž was spending nights playing with his 8-men band in kafanas of Novi Sad, especially on Petrovaradin fortress, of which he became one of icons. During his career, Janika Balaž held concerts across the world, including 36 performances in Paris Olympia. Allegedly, he had several offers from United States and Soviet Union to move there and work as a tamburitza teacher, but he never wanted to leave Novi Sad, where he died in 1988. Janika Balaž participated in several documentary and feature films. Songs “Osam tamburaša s Petrovaradina” /Eight tambouritza-players from Petrovaradin/ and “Primaši” were dedicated to him. During his career, he worked with many renowned musicians, including Zvonko Bogdan and Julija Bisak. After Janka Balaž died, the city of Novi Sad raised a monument /authored by sculptor Laszlo Silagyi/, standing on a square opposite the Petrovaradin fortress across the Danube.
Trumpet – Brass
Trumpet is the aero phonic brass tubing instrument brought to Serbia at the end of 19th century by the ex-warriors that used it as the motivating instrument during heroic Balkan wars. Played together by the local musicians the trumpet is warmly welcomed and accepted by Serb population as one of the most significant instrument. After the Second World War the trumpet playing became specially popular in three Serbian regions : Uzice and Cacak region, Boljevac and Zajecar region and Vranje and Leskovac region. Sound is produced by blowing air through closed lips, producing a “buzzing” sound into the mouthpiece and starting a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the trumpet. The trumpet is most commonly used in orchestral playing. The first Dragacevo Trumpeters’ Competition is held on October 14th, 1961. in Guca Church yard. Nowadays Dragacevo Brass Festival is one of the biggest festivals in the world.
Serbian very old national music instrument is stringed musical instrument, with a round wooden back, a skin belly, and one horsehair string secured at the top of the neck by a rear tuning peg. It is played in a vertical position, with a deeply curved bow. It has no fingerboard, the string being stopped by the sideways pressure of the player’s fingers. Gusle players or Guslari are among the few performers continuing the oral tradition of epic poetry. Most of their songs are about the era of Turkish rule and were handed down by teachers or older singers. Because the narratives are orally transmitted, variation in content is inevitable. Its songs were basic and often the only way to hand down traditions and memory of Serb people during the rule of foreigners. People gathered around gusle players and listened epic songs about Serb heroes and suffering of Serb nation. Very often, large crowd and players began to cry touched by very emotional contents.
A flute is the Serbian name for a musical instrument which resembles a small recorder or flute. It is an aero phone. Similar instruments are played throughout Eastern Europe and the Balkans. It is typically made of wood and has six holes and it is held vertically. The frula is a traditional instrument of shepherds and farmers, who would play while tending their flocks. The outer surface of the pipe is angular, but the actual bore is round.
The double flute is made of two connected instruments – pipes, made parallel of one piece of wood. Each instrument has a mouthpiece for blowing air inside, just like an ordinary pipe, and holes for the fingers on both pipes. In Serbia, on the left pipe there are three holes, and on the right there are four. The double flute is played in two ways : a/ one tone on the left pipe, and a tune on the right. b/ a tune on the right pipe, and the accompaniment on the left.
Zurla – Shawm – Zurna
Zurla is an oriental instrument which, most probably, came to the Balkans from Turkey and Persia. In the Balkans zurna is present in Kosovo and Metohia, Macedonia and Bulgaria. The pipe of the zurla is cylindrical, but it is very wide at the end, usually made of walnut or plum wood. The sound is very strong and intended for playing outdoors. The zurlas are often played in pairs with the accompaniment of the large traditional drums. The ensemble “Stupovi” uses special zurla with the “cap, which is placed on the top of the instrument, and used for producing of the sound.
/quoted from Ensemble “Stupovi” archive/
Shargia is a sort of plucked string instrument. The name comes from the Turkish word sarki /the East/. It may have 4 to 12 strings. The tune is played on the highest string, and the other strings are used for the accompaniment. It was used for the accompaniment for dancing and singing. The shargia is used in musical practice of Kosovo and Metohia, Macedonia and some parts of Serbia, especialy the Užice region. /quoted from Ensemble “Stupovi” archive/
Kaval is a chromatic end-blow flute, open from both sides. It is usually made of one piece of ash wood and is played by blowing on the sharpened edge of one end. Kaval is decorated along its whole length. The instrument tenderly sharpen at the end. Kaval has seven holes for fingers on its forefront and one hole for the first finger on the back side. Holes are equitably distanced. The sixth hole sits at the average middle position of instrument. Kaval is traditionally played throughout Azerbaijan, Turkey, Bulgaria, Macedonia, southern Serbia, northern Greece, Romania and Armenia. The kaval is primarily associated with mountain shepherds throughout the Balkans and Anatolia spread with the inhabitants from the Taurus mountains of southern Turkey into the southern Balkans of southeast Europe. When played, the kaval is held with both hands at an angle of approximately 45° from the body, with the four fingers of the one hand covering the lower holes; the upper three holes and the thumb hole are covered with the other hand. The mouth covers ~3/4 of the end. Change of the breath air pressure also changes the pitch. The kaval is usually mounted on a wooden holder, which protects it from warping and helps keep the interior walls oiled. While in the past kaval was predominantly shepherd’s instrument, nowadays it is widely used as instrumental of folk songs in ensembles or solo playing and dances.
The gaida /bagpipe/ is aerophone music instrument that uses enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag which originates from the East and is used by all European nations. The gaida – bagpipe is one of the most popular traditional instruments in the Balkans along with the kaval. Gajda – bagpipe is typical to all parts of Balkan both for accompaniment and solo performance. Bag is usually made of lamb skin because of better performances. The gaida – bagpipe is composed by the following parts: gaidunitsa, ruchilo, duhalo, glavini and meh. Gaidunitsa is the most important part of the gaida and is a kind of a pipe with eight holes for the fingers, seven of them are on the front side and the eighth hole is on the back side of the pipe. Before playing, the gajda should be tuned. This is achieved by playing the fifth tone on the chanter (with the upper four holes covered) and adjusting the length of the drone, so that it plays two octaves lower. The gajda – bagpipe is held under the arm (the bag should be inflated from time to time). The chanter is held with both hands, so that the left hand fingers cover the lower 4 holes, while the upper three and the thumb hole are covered with the right hand fingers. The tone possibilities of the gaida are less then these of the kaval. There are two main kinds of gaida. Low (caba) and high (dzhura) – the low type of gaida is diffused in the mountainous regions. The most famous Bulgarian is the so called Rhodope (mountain) gaida, which is used as a lyrical accompaniment of Rhodope songs or melodies. The most used gaida is with the main tone “sol” (dzhura). It has got loud tone possibilities compared to the other kind of gaida. The gajda – bagpipe repertoire includes folk dances and songs, which are performed typically during festive occasions.