Petrovaradin Fortress Novi Sad
Petrovaradin Fortress is located in Novi Sad, on the Petrovaradin cliff, above the right bank of the Danube River. Petrovaradin Fortress is symbol of Novi Sad and one of the best preserved fortifications in Europe, which has been constructed by Austria-hungarians in order to protect the town of Novi Sad from Turkish occupation. The present day Petrovaradin Fortress was built from 1692 to 1780 on the place of the former settlement that dates back to the prehistoric era. Archaeological excavations in the Upper Town of the Petrovaradin Fortress foundations have documented human settlements dating back to the Middle Paleolithic – Early Stone Age (about 60.000-90.000 BC), and from the Neolithic – Late Stone Age (4.200 to 3.200 BC), as well as especially significant Eneolithic era of the Copper and the Bronze Age (about 3.200 to 1.700 BC), the period of discovered earth fortification with wooden palisades /Late Bronze era/. With this new development it has been established that there has been a continuous human settlement at this site from the Paleolithic age to the present. During the archaeological research excavations in Petrovaradin Fortress carried out in 2005, archaeologists also discovered another significant find. Examining remains from the early Bronze age (c. 3000 BC), ramparts were discovered which testify that already at that time a fortified settlement existed at the Petrovaradin site. On the site of the Petrovaradin Fortress was Celtic settlement in 100 BC invaded by Romans who constructed here Kuzum /Cusum/ Fortification. This fort was destroyed by Huns in the 5th century, to be rebuilt by Byzantines as the Petrikon Fortification. The first appearance of the present-day Petrovaradin fortificaion comes from 1235 when Hungarian King Bela IV let Catholic monks Cistercians to build its Belakut Abbey on the remains of the Cusum. During the invasion of Tatars, monks succeded in defending by this fortification. Recently during the reconstruction works on the Petrovaradin Fortress infrastructure remains of settlement and the church from this period have been found. Construction of the present day Petrovaradin Fortress was initiated by the Austro-hungarians in order to protect themselves from invading Turks. Its initiator and creative constructor was marquees Sebastian Voban, French military officer, architect and writer from the period of Louis XIV. The Petrovaradin Fortress dates from the periods of Austrian emperors – Leopold I, Joseph I, Karlo VI, Maria Teresa and Joseph II on the place of former fortification at the inaccessible bank of the Danube River. Petrovaradin Fortress was constructed under Turkish occupation from 1683 until 1699 and after the Peace-Treaty of Karlovci was signed in 1699, the Austro-Hungarians entered the town and started building the new fortress.
In Petrovaradin area, on the Vezirac Hill the famous Petrovaradin Battle between the Turkish and the Austro-Hungarian forces took place in 1716 in which Turks were heavily defeated and for good expelled south of Sava and Danube Rivers. During the course of time the Fortress of Petrovaradin god the name of „Gibraltar on the Danube” because of its premium position and great importance. At the Petrovaradin Fortress there are: Academy of Art, City Museum of Novi Sad, restaurants, the Leopold Hotel, ateliers, galleries, souvenir shop… The most amazing attraction of the Petrovaradin Fortress are the underground military galleries on the four levels, that are 16 km long. Visit route is something less than 1 km and provides visitors real impression on this huge stronghold. Every year the Petrovaradin Fortress becomes State of festival Exit. Gallery “Atelier 61” is the unique artistic tapestry workshop situated on the Upper part of Petrovaradin Fortress. It is one of the rare world tapestry centers where the art of tapestry is cultivated, preserved and promoted. There are approximately 200 valuable art pieces exposed i Gallery “Atelje 61”. Since its founding in 1961 until now over 800 tapestry pieces were finished here in the special hand-weaving techniques.