Perast – Risan
Perast is a UNESCO heritage site, small sleepy fishermen village in Kotor Bay with an amazing history and today one of the most beautiful examples of Baroque architecture in the Adriatic, thanks to its subtle urban palaces and structures which mostly date from the 17th and the 18th century. Perast lies beneath the St. Elijah Hill /873 meters/, on a cape that separates the bay of Risan from the bay of Kotor /two smaller bays within the Boka Kotorska Bay/ and overlooks the Verige strait, the narrowest part of the Boka Bay. The Verige point is the straits named after huge chains that used to be risen from the both shore sides, so to prevent pirate and enemy boats and sailing ships enter the Boka Bay and plunder the rich inner settlements. So this Verige straits was of the great strategic importance for the last third area of the Boka bay, where several settlements greatly developed – Morinj, Risan, Perast and Kotor, guarding wealth and reputation of rich Boka merchants and their families, hidden and protected from unforeseen attacks.
Nowadays Perast is turned into important and popular tourist center of the Adriatic, undoubtedly one of the most enchanting resorts of Montenegro. Perast is positioned right in the center of the Bay of Kotor facing its entrance, so situated to get maximum sun, both in winter and summer. From afar, under the Montenegrin sun, the town of Perast glitters as if it’s made of gold. This ancient town was built by Medieval rulers and wealthy Venetian sailors and is made up of stunning churches and palaces which have been well preserved. Perast was made car-free so there is no real traffic along the waterfront, providing that it is really very pleasant to sit on the sea wall and watch the world go by, especially as the cruise boats pass on their way to the nearby town of Kotor.
Perast got its name after the Illyrian tribe of Pirusta. Near Perast and Risan in the Boka Bay there are two small islands : one is natural island called Saint George island, covered with numerous legends and myths, surrounded with strong stone walls and hidden from outer view by high cypresses, and the other is man-made island called Gospa od Skrpjela /Our Lady of the Rock/, each featuring picturesque appearance and a worth-discovering story. Benedictine Monastery with the church dedicated to Saint George on the Saint George Island is first mentioned in the 12th century in some historical records, as this saint was the original patron of Kotor. The present day appearance of the St George Island dates from the end of the 17th century and today it houses the local grave yard where prominent locals are buries. In the wonderful Boka-kotor Bay there are 7 islands – Saint Mark, Mamula, Gospa od Skrpjela, St George, Milosrda, Ostrvo cveca and Mala Gospa. From their strongholds of the island of Saint George and Our Lady on the Rocks inhabitants of Perast have guarded the strategically important Verige straits, where the maritime way to Kotor was most endangered.
Gospa od Škrpjela Island /originally called “Madonna dello Scarpello” in Venetian/ is particularly interesting being the only artificially built island in the Adriatic. The Gospa od Skrpjela Island coverts the area of 3,030 m² and has been built in 1472 upon a rock /Škrpjel/ after two Venetian sailors from Perast found a picture of the Virgin Mary on it. The Church, built in 1630, contains rich collection of silver coins and 68 baroque paintings of famous master Tripo Kokolja from Perast. The painting of Italian painter Tiepolo depicting St Roco covers the right part of the altar. At the back of the church the ‘keeper’s lodge’ holds a small museum : two floors devoted to the turbulent history of Perast, a vivid assembly of wonderful paintings of stormy seas, dramatic exploits and heroic struggles; pieces of Greek and Roman amphora from the seabed : pottery shards and stone weapons from 3500 BC discovered in the Spila cave above Perast; an early hand-powered iron screw with two transmissions that served to propel the St George Monastery boat; and best of all a delicate, embroidered icon, the work of one Jacinta Kunic, in which she sewed her own golden hair on the heads of Madonna and child. It took here 20 years to complete, by which time those hairs were gray.
Fašinada is old custom of Boka population and traditional event which celebrates the Holy Virgin of Škrpjela and the artificial island where grateful seafarers had created the present island. The legend goes that fishermen of Perast had found an icon of the Virgin with Christ and decided to create an island with the church, from the wrecks and stones. Since then, there is an unwritten vow of the seafarers to sink new stones around the island, before every new sail, as their contribution to support of their protector shrine. Decorated rowing boats every 22 July, on sunset, start their sail towards the island, singing old bugarštica songs, and fulfill their promise to ancestors, by throwing stones around the Gospa od Skrpjela island. In the first boat there are the priest, the mayor and honorable inhabitants of Perast, as well as singers of the old Perast songs – bugarštica songs. Perast has the far most of the written bugarstica songs – the old Serbian songs of long lyrics, whose name comes probably from the verb “bugariti”, which means singing sad songs. The famous Serbian historian Valtazar Bogishic recorded in 1878 collection of old bugarstica songs called “Pjesme iz starijih, najvise primorskih zapisa”, from the second half of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century.
Perast /called Perasto in the Venetian language, spoken officially there until the 19th century/ was part of the Albania Veneta. Venice ruled and owned the city of Perast between 1420 and 1797 which was the last city of the Republic to lower the Venetian flag. Perast was developed under dramatic circumstanced caused by conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Venetian Republic, which this area experienced especially strong. The sixteen Baroque palaces of Perast were mostly built in this period, too, as were its seventeen Catholic churches and two Orthodox churches. The most significant churches of Perast which are preserved until present are the Saint Nicholas Church, the Chapel of the Virgin Mary, Saint John the Baptist Church, Saint Anne Church, Saint Marc Church, Saint Anthony Church and the Holy Virgin Church /Orthodox Cathedral/. Church of Saint Nicholas is situated at the main square of Perast, set in direction east – west, with an inscription from 1654 at its entrance, dedicated to the victory of Perast inhabitants over the Ottomans. Its present appearance date from 1616, though there is an earlier record about the church from 1564. Right next to the old Church of Saint Nicholas in Perast, on its back side is the part of the new unfinished church, which only the apse and the belfry completed. Foundation was put in 1740, and it was constructed until 1800, when works were suspended, because of Napoleon wars. The old and the new unfinished church of Saint Nicholas nowadays make an unique complex. Next to the church is the bell tower, built in 1691, under the plans of the Venetian architect Giuzeppe Beati. It is 55 meters high and 55000 golden ducats were paid for its construction. Although it was built during the baroque period, it features Romanesque and Renaissance elements. The largest bell from 1713 was gift of the Bishop Andrija and Vicko Zmajevic . Two smaller bells were added in 1797. Clock on the bell tower was brought from Venice and put in function in 1730. The Church of Saint Nicholas in Perast hosts a rich treasury with paintings of Tripo Kokolj and other precious artifacts from the 16th and the 17th century, of which are very interesting the silver cross of Bishop Zmajevic, Alexander Nevsky decoration to admiral Zmajevic from the Russian tsar Petar the Great and other. In 1678 Andrija Zmajević founded in Perast the Chapel of Our Lady – Kapela Gospe od Rozarija. Special feature of this church is the elegant belfry which is regarded one of the most beautiful in the Adriatic.
The old city of Perast does not have a defensive wall, but instead it features nine defensive towers, the most important of which is the tower of the Holy Cross. These were built by the navy of the Venetian Republic in the 15th and 16th centuries. Perast was at its peak in the 18th century under the Republic of Venice, when it had as many as four active shipyards, a fleet of around one hundred ships, and 1643 residents. At that time the most beautiful buildings arose in this fortified town. Many ornate baroque palaces and magnificent dwelling-houses decorated the town of Perast /Perasto/, full of typical Venetian architecture. The fleet was extinguished by the rise of the steam engine. Baroque Palaces of Perast built by the famous seafarers noble families : Smekja Palace, Bujovic Family Palace, Balovic Family Palace. Dabinović Palace, known as the „Kokotova kula” /tower of Kokot/, was built in the middle of the 18th century, and makes one of the most beautiful baroque palaces of Dobrota village. Tripković Palace was built at the end of the 18th century, as one of the most imposing and beautiful baroque structures built by the seafarers of Boka Kotorska Bay.
Bokeljska Noc is the event which keeps the tradition with the aim to show the life of coastal towns and mentality of fishermen, sailors and citizens of Kotor Bay and its nearby fishermen villages from Morinj and Kostanjica to Stoliv. Task of the competitors of Bokeljska noć is to decorate their boats in the best possible way, in the most original way so that they are the most beautiful boats in the parade and to convey a specific message to the visitors.
Risan is the oldest settlement of Boka Kotorska – Bay of Kotor and one of the largest archaeological sites in Montenegro. Timulus – stone-earth hoards are concentrated on the edges of karts fields and on the top of surrounding hills. In some of those hoards are found graves with stone slabs and flexed human skeletons. There are also fragments of ceramics, metal decorations and weapons found, which belong the the Bronze and Stone ages. The stone grave tombs – tumuli are excavated in the villages of Grahovo, Trešnjevo, Ržišta, Grab, Ržani Dol, Izvori and Bati in Cuce. Earthen tumulus of the area of Risan are found in Tivat Field (Mala Gruda) and Rubež, near Nikšić. Two localities clearly prove the human presence of the pre-historical man on the very shore of the Risan Bay – the Cave of Spila and the stone cliff in Lipci village. Lying in the innermost portion of the Boka Kotorska bay, the settlement was protected from the interior by inaccessible limestone cliffs of the Orjen Mountain, the highest range of the eastern Adriatic, and through several following narrow straits in the Bay of Kotor from the open sea.
Risan was first mentioned in the 3rd century BC as the Illyrian fortification. According to the legend the Illyrian Queen Teuta found the shelter in Risan when was persecuted by Romans. In Roman times, Rhizinium is documented as an oppidum civium Romanorum. Two Roman routes led through the Bay of Kotor. The most prosperous time for Roman Rhizinium came during the first and second centuries. Beautiful Roman mosaics dating from the end of the 2nd and the beginning of the 3rd century BC are found in Risan. Centrally located on the mosaic there is the scene of God Hypnosis which is the only depiction of this God on the eastern shore of the Adriatic. It was the famous English archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans who led the initial archaeological excavations in Risan. Ivelić Palace is situated in the central part of Risan, by the east side of Gabela Street. The Ivelić Palace was built in the 18th century and belonged to the Ivelić family.