Cetinje – Old Capital Of Montenegro
Cetinje is the historical royal capital and the secondary capital of Montenegro. As of 2003 Cetinja had a population of 18,1000. The city of Cetinje nestles on a small karst Cetinje field, at the elevation of 650 meters, surrounded with gigantic limestone Montenegrin mountains, including the Lovcen Mountain, the Black Mountain after which Montenegro gets its name. Cetinje is a town of immense historical heritage, founded in the 15th century. Among numerous structures, museums and libraries of Cetinje, some distinguish themselves as the Cetinje Monastery – the Montenegrin cultural seat for centuries, in which today is kept the rich treasury of the cultural inheritance of Montenegro, the Biljarda – structure built by Njegos in 1838 as his residence. The original Cetinje Monastery had been built by Ivan Crnojević in 1484 and was demolished in 1692, during the fierce attack on Cetinje by Suleyman Bushatlija. Cetinje became the center of Montenegrin life and both a cradle of Montenegrin and an Eastern Orthodox religious center. It is because of its heritage as a long-term Montenegrin capital that it is today the honorary capital of Montenegro. On the 12th km of the road from Cetinje to Lovćen, there is the famous excursion spot and tourist center of Ivanova korita, whose name is connected with the founder of Cetinje – Ivan Crnojević, known in history as Ivan – beg. Ivanova korita tourist spot is located within the Lovćen National Park and makes one of its most beautiful parts, situated on the eastern side of the Jezerski vrh peak, on the plateau circled with forest and meadows. The altitude, mixture of Mediterranean and continental climate, as well as the ecological environment, provide natural habitat of various medicinal herbs. The Ivanova korita tourist spot is frequented in recent years with biologists and herbs lovers who pick up medicinal herbs – mint, St John, wormwood, primrose and others.
The founding of Cetinje was conditioned by the historical, political, and economic background in the 15th century. Wars of conquest led by the Turks forced Ivan Crnojevic, the ruler of the Medieval Zeta at that time, to move the capital of his country from the fortified town of Zabljak to the inaccessible parts, to Obod in 1475, and soon after it at the foot of Lovcen Mountain. In the field of Cetinje in 1482 his Court was built and two years later the monastery was built as well. By building the Court and the Monastery a new capital was founded. Its name was Cetinje. It was named after the beautifully meandering Cetina River that runs through it. The Cetinje Monastery has been built in 1701. Turks destroyed it several times during its history, but local people always reconstructed it. The new Cetinje Monastery became the domicile of the Zeta metropolitan. So, Cetinje turned out to be not only the center of secular life but also the spiritual center where Djurdaj Crnojevic, the son to Ivan Crnojević, founded the first printing house in the Slavic South. Rapid progress of Cetinje under the rule of the Crnojević Dynasty was interrupted at the very end of the 15th century. Actually, State of Zeta lost its independence in 1499 so the only free part of the country, which was called Montenegro since then, was reduced to a mountainous territory between Crnojević River and The Bay of Kotor. In the next two centuries Cetinje stagnated in its development. It was very often under the attack of Venice and the Turks. So, in the 16th and 17th century Cetinje was exposed to tough temptations. In this period the court and the monastery of the Crnojevići dynasty were destroyed. Until the 16th century the state of Montenegro did not exist under this name, nor was the present katun nahija settled, except Cetinje and some places, but throughout the history it was part of the ancient Serbian states of Prevala – Doclea or Zeta. Prevala was renamed Doclea after the Roman Emperor Diocletian in the 3rd century. There is also an opinion that this area was named after the Zeta river, which flows through the present Bjelopavlici are or Prevala, as the earliest geograhical name of this province that history records.
It was only by the end of the 17th century, in 1697, that Cetinje began to flourish again under the rule of the Petrovic Dunasty and Danilo Petrovic as its founder. Leading the liberation wars and strengthening the unity in the country preoccupied Danilo and his successors. They didn’t have enough time to dedicate to the building of Cetinje. It was only during the rule of Petar II Petrovic Njegos that the remarkable progress has been made. In 1838 his new royal residence called Biljarda (Billiard house) was built. Cetinje was enlarged by building new houses that gradually led to urbanization.Petar I introduced new crops to Montenegro and began a process of legal modernization, which was to last throughout the nineteenth century.
Montenegrin independence was recognized by the decision of the Berlin Congress in 1878 and so Cetinje became the capital of a European country. Many modern buildings designed for foreign consulates were built due to the newly established relations with various European countries. The buildings of the French, Russian, British, Italian and Austro-Hungarian consulates are regarded as the most beautiful of these. Cetinje made great progress under the rule of Prince Nikola I Petrovic when numerous public edifices were built. Those include the first hotel, called ‘Lokanda’, then the new Prince’s palace, the Girls’ Institute and the hospital. This period also saw the first tenancy houses. In the 1860 report Cetinja had 34 households. Montenegro was proclaimed a Kingdom in 1910 which had a great effect on its development. At this time the Government House, the symbol of the state power, was built. The population census from the same year recorded a massive growth in the world’s smallest capital, registering 5,895 inhabitants. Between 1878 and 1914 Cetinje flourished in every sense. Many renowned intellectuals from other South-Slavic parts came to stay there and made a contribution to the cultural, educational and every other aspect of life. At the time between the two World Wars, Cetinje expanded its territory, as it was now a center of the Zeta region. But when it was decided by the Parliament of Montenegro that the administrative organs should be located in Titograd /previously and presently Podgorica/ Cetinje went through a harsh crisis. By building certain industrial sections and at the same time neglecting the development of the city’s traditional and potential cultural and tourist capacities, the chance to create a strong basis for more solid prosperity was lost.
The Cetinje Monastery also known as the New Cetinje Monastery is the most famous Serb Orthodox Monastery in Montenegro. It is the seat of the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral and its name derives from Saint Peter of Cetinje. As center of historical and cultural importance, it was founded between 1701 and 1704 by Prince-Bishop Danilo I Petrovic on the site of the former court of Ivan the Black. In the New Cetinje Monastery there are several relics: remains of Saint Peter of Cetinje, Right hand of Saint John the Baptist, Remains of Petar II Petrovic – Njegos were moved here and Crown of Stefan Uros IV Decanski, the Medieval Emperor of Serbia, the oktoih printed in 1493 at the Crnojevic printing house in Obod – the Orthodox liturgical book of eight tones used weekly during the church services throughout the ecclesiastical year. The National Museum of Montenegro which is complex museum institution of Montenegro, nowadays exhibits several significant units in Cetinje : The Historical Museum of Montenegro, Ethnographic Museum of Montenegro, Court of King Nikola Petrovic and Njegos Museum.
Only ten kilometers away from the old royal capital is the village of Njeguši, famous as the birthplace of many Montenegrin rulers. The village of Njeguši is located beneath Mount Lovćen, known for, among other things, its numerous delicacies: prosciutto, cheese, kastradina (smoked sheep meat) and sausages. Prosciutto is made from pork and the special flavor is obtained thanks to the mixture of the sea and mountain air and the woods used for drying. Visitors enjoy in tasting of those traditional products, that make Montenegro recognizable far and wide.
Narrow and winding road leads from Cetinje to Kotor. In ancient times until the late 19th century this mule track road was the only connection of Cetinje and littoral and to the outside world as supply line for essential provisions. It was in 1877 when Josip Šilović Slade from Trogir responded to the order of Prince Nikola to help with his knowledge and expertise in development of the road infrastructure of Montenegro, and building of other structures, and the next year, 1878, he had designed and built the road from the Austrian border above Kotor to Cetinje, via Njeguši village. The second section of the road to Kotor, with the famous 25 serpentine, was completed in 1884. Scenery is breathtaking and view to Boka Kotorska Bay from up here is unreal and make visitors speechless. All Boka Bay in its blue sea and Kotor town tucked sleep in breasts of high Montenegrin cliffs.
The only cave in Montenegro, arranged for visitors is the Lipska Cave, located in the village of Lipa Dobrska, 5 km away from Cetinje, 33 km of Budva, and 35 km of Podgorica. The Lipska Pecina Cave features wonderful and wild appearance along its 2,5 km walking route, rich in cave halls and galleries of the underground world. The beauty of the Lipska Pecina Cave was known from time immemorial, and it attracted number of historical personalities of Montenegro, among them Petar II Petrović Njegoš and King Nikola I. At present, the Lipska Cave provides memorable experiences for families, real researches and “treasure hunters”.
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